I think that animal Testing should be limited to rats and other rodents. Da Doc - 9-Nov We're animals too, it changes nothing, except more guilt of killing a fellow equal person to those who say animals are equals too. Its not like the results change that much, animal testing is very accurate compared to humans, and also if you want prisoners to be tested on, they're as helpless as animals and is basically almost like sending them off to death row, as they will likely die.
Animal experimentation pros essay help dark side of light at night: More recently, the National Sleep Foundation released its survey finding ever more electronics use before bed; relevant quote: Artificial light exposure between dusk and the time we go to bed at night suppresses release of the sleep-promoting hormone melatonin, enhances alertness and shifts circadian rhythms to a later hour—making it more difficult to fall asleep, says Charles Czeisler, Ph.
This study reveals that light-emitting screens are in heavy use within the pivotal hour before sleep. Invasion of such alerting technologies into the bedroom may contribute to the high proportion of respondents who reported that they routinely get less sleep than they need.
Computer or laptop use is also common. We tested the impact of two realistic office lighting conditions during the afternoon on subjective sleepiness, hormonal secretion, and cognitive performance in the early evening hours.
Twenty-nine young subjects came twice and spent 8 h In the early evening, we assessed their salivary cortisol and melatonin secretion, subjective sleepiness, and cognitive performance n-back test under dim light conditions. Subjects felt [statistically-]significantly more alert at the beginning of the evening after the DL condition, and they became sleepier at the end of the evening after the AL condition.
For cognitive performance we found a [statistically-]significant interaction between light conditions, mental load 2- or 3-back task and the order of light administration.
On their first evening, subjects performed with similar accuracy after both light conditions, but on their second evening, subjects performed [statistically-]significantly more accurately after the DL in both n-back versions and committed fewer false alarms in the 2-back task compared to the AL group.
So scientists at the University of Basel in Switzerland tried a simple experiment: They asked 13 men to sit before a computer each evening for two weeks before going to bed. During one week, for five hours every night, the volunteers sat before an old-style fluorescent monitor emitting light composed of several colors from the visible spectrum, though very little blue.
Another week, the men sat at screens backlighted by light-emitting diodes, or LEDs. This screen was twice as blue.
To our surprise, we saw huge differences, said Christian Cajochen, who heads the Center for Chronobiology at the University of Basel. Melatonin levels in volunteers watching the LED screens took longer to rise at night, compared with when the participants were watching the fluorescent screens, and the deficit persisted throughout the evening.
The subjects also scored higher on tests of memory and cognition after exposure to blue light, Dr. The finding adds to a series of others suggesting, though certainly not proving, that exposure to blue light may keep us more awake and alert, partly by suppressing production of melatonin.
But the light emitted by older sources, like incandescent bulbs, contains more red wavelengths. The problem now, Dr.
Brainard and other researchers fear, is that our world is increasingly illuminated in blue. By one estimate, 1. In January in the journal PLoS One, the University of Basel team also compared the effects of incandescent bulbs to fluorescents modified to emit more blue light.
In addition, the quantity of light necessary to affect melatonin may be much smaller than once thought. In research published in March in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, a team at the Harvard Medical School reported that ordinary indoor lighting before bedtime suppressed melatonin in the brain, even delaying production of the hormone for 90 minutes after the lights were off, compared with people exposed to only dim light.
What do these findings mean to everyday life? Some experts believe that any kind of light too late into the evening could have broad health effects, independent of any effect on sleep.
For example, a report published last year in the journal PNAS found that mice exposed to light at night gained more weight than those housed in normal light, even though both groups consumed the same number of calories.
Light at night has been examined as a contributor to breast cancer for two decades. While there is still no consensus, enough laboratory and epidemiological studies have supported the idea that inthe World Health Organization declared shift work a probable carcinogen.
Body clock disruptions can alter sleep-activity patterns, suppress melatonin production and disregulate genes involved in tumor development, the agency concluded. See also a Navy-funded RPI sleep study, which found Only the higher level of blue light resulted in a reduction in melatonin levels relative to the other lighting conditions.
Sanjiv Shah, a longtime insomniac who participates in the Boston group, believes that wearing orange-tinted glasses for several hours before bed makes it easier for him to fall asleep.
The theory is that the orange tint blocks blue light, which has been shown in both human and animal studies to influence circadian rhythms. To quantify the effects, he used not only the Zeo but also a thumb-size device called the Fitbit, which incorporates an accelerometer that measures movement, and a camera trained on his bed to record his sleep for a month.
My personal experience with taking 9 mg, is that I will sleep for hours and will then awake with a nasty headache that lasts for the rest of that day. My experience reminds me of the descriptions given by a lot of people who discover that the dose they tried of 3mg or 1mg was too high: So as one would expect, the right dose differs from person to person.
Melatonin seems to quickly lose effectiveness and soon becomes counterproductive; Wikipedia summarizes: Large doses of melatonin can even be counterproductive: Lewy et al provide support to the idea that too much melatonin may spill over onto the wrong zone of the melatonin phase-response curve PRC.
In one of their subjects, 0.The Case for Animal Rights - "The Case For Animal Rights" written by Tom Regan, promotes the equal treatment of humans and non-humans. I agree with Regan's view, as he suggests that humans and animals alike, share the experience of life, and thus share equal, inherent value.
Arkansas Regional Library. NARL is a consortium of public libraries from Clay, Greene and Randolph Counties. The regional library allows for the pooling of resources to better serve the three counties.
I discuss melatonin’s effects on sleep & its safety with research up to ; I segue into the general benefits of sleep and the severely disrupted sleep of the modern Western world, the cost of melatonin use and the benefit (eg. enforcing regular bedtimes), followed by a basic cost-benefit analysis of melatonin concluding that the net profit is large enough to be worth giving it a try.
The What the Hell is it Actually Called Blue Box. The cerebrum is the whole big top/outside part of the brain but it also technically includes some of the internal parts too..
Cortex means “bark” in Latin and is the word used for the outer layer of many organs, not just the plombier-nemours.com outside of the cerebellum is the cerebellar cortex. And the outside of . Opposing Viewpoints Series - Animal Experimentation (hardcover edition) [Helen Cothran] on plombier-nemours.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
The use of companion animals such as dogs in medical experiments has intensified the debate about animal testing.
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