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The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40, years old.
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Evidence of modern humans, similarly dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm. The finds include 42,year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found,  the 40,year-old Ice Age Lion Man which is the oldest uncontested figurative art ever discovered,  and the 35,year-old Venus of Hohle Fels which is the oldest uncontested human figurative art ever discovered.
As it was partitioned inWest Francia blue and East Francia red became predecessors of France and Germany, respectively In the 3rd century a number of large West Germanic tribes emerged: Aroundthe Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands.
Simultaneously several large tribes formed in what is now Germany and displaced or absorbed smaller Germanic tribes. Large areas known since the Merovingian period as AustrasiaNeustriaand Aquitaine were conquered by the Franks who established the Frankish Kingdomand pushed farther east to subjugate Saxony and Bavaria.
Areas of what is today the eastern part of Germany were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes of SorbsVeleti and the Obotritic confederation. East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Inthe Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor and founded the Carolingian Empirewhich was later divided in among his heirs.
The Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy under the reign of the Salian emperors —although the emperors lost power through the Investiture Controversy. In the 12th century, under the Hohenstaufen emperors —German princes increased their influence further south and east into territories inhabited by Slavs ; they encouraged German settlement in these areas, called the eastern settlement movement Ostsiedlung.
Members of the Hanseatic Leaguewhich included mostly north German cities and towns, prospered in the expansion of trade.
The edict of the Golden Bull issued in by Emperor Charles IV provided the basic constitutional structure of the Empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors who ruled some of the most powerful principalities and archbishoprics.
Johannes Gutenberg introduced moveable-type printing to Europe, a development that laid the basis for the spread of learning to the masses.
Inthe Peace of Augsburg established Lutheranism as an acceptable alternative to Catholicism, but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects, a principle called Cuius regio, eius religio. The agreement at Augsburg failed to address other religious creed: Having no male heirs, he had convinced the Electors to retain Habsburg hegemony in the office of the emperor by agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction.
Fromthe dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated the German history. Inthen again in andthe two dominant German states of Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empireagreed to the Partitions of Poland ; dividing among themselves the lands of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.
As a result of the partitions, millions of Polish speaking inhabitants fell under the rule of the two German monarchies.
However, the annexed territories though incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Realm, were not legally considered as a part of the Holy Roman Empire. In the Imperium was dissolved; many German states, particularly the Rhineland statesfell under the influence of France.
Following the fall of Napoleonthe Congress of Vienna convened in founded the German Confederation Deutscher Bunda loose league of 39 sovereign states. The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president of the Confederation reflected the Congress's failure to accept Prussia's rising influence among the German states, and acerbated the long-standing competition between the Hohenzollern and Habsburg interests.
Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Metternich. The Zollvereina tariff union, furthered economic unity in the German states. The Hambach Festival in May was a main event in support of German unityfreedom and democracy.
In the light of a series of revolutionary movements in Europewhich established a republic in Franceintellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of in the German states.
King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, leading to a temporary setback for the movement.
Bismarck is at the centre in a white uniform. Bismarck successfully concluded war on Denmark inwhich promoted German over Danish interests in the Jutland peninsula. The subsequent and decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of enabled him to create the North German Confederation Norddeutscher Bund which excluded Austria from the federation's affairs.
After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian Warthe German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in at Versaillesuniting all the scattered parts of Germany except Austria and the German-speaking parts of Switzerland. Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the Hohenzollern King of Prussia ruled as its concurrent Emperor, and Berlin became its capital.Make a big scene bigger.
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