Global and china forest industry 2014

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Global and china forest industry 2014

Click here to read the full series. The benefits of the oil palm are difficult for Indonesia to ignore. Once planted, the tropical tree can produce fruit for more than 30 years, providing much-needed employment for poor rural communities.

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And its oil is highly lucrative, due largely to the fact that the plant yields more oil per hectare than any major oilseed crop. Indonesia is now the leading supplier for a global market that demands more of the tree's versatile oil for cooking, cosmetics, and biofuel.

But palm oil's appeal comes with significant costs. Oil palm plantations often replace tropical forests, killing endangered species, uprooting local communities, and contributing to the release of climate-warming gases.

Due mostly to oil palm production, Indonesia emits more greenhouse gases than any country besides China and the United States. The price drop has put a significant dent in the palm oil industry.

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Yet observers are confident that international buyers, especially in China, India, and the Middle East, will continue to buy more palm oil, regardless of the commodity's environmental or social effects. The analysis expects global demand to then return to earlier levels of 2.

This is a short-term phenomenon," said Tim Killeen, who represents the conservation organization Conservation International on the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil RSPOa multi-stakeholder effort to form sustainable standards for palm oil production.

In an effort to stimulate demand, Indonesia passed biofuel mandates last year that require the country's cars and trucks to include either ethanol or palm-oil biodiesel in their fuel mix. FromIndonesia supplied more than half of the global palm oil market, eclipsing Malaysia's production in to become the world leader.

Global and china forest industry 2014

Indonesia's palm oil exports increased nearly 11 million tons over the decade, or about 27 percent per year. This expansion came at an annual expense of somehectares of Indonesian countryside, mostly tropical lowland forests. The government plans to establish about 1.

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The industry group estimates that more than 7 million hectares of plantations have been established, leaving an additional Such expansion, however, could wipe out the remaining natural habitat of several endangered species. The Center for Orangutan Protection warned last year that the great ape may become extinct in Central Kalimantan, a region of the rapidly developing island of Borneo, if the rate of plantation growth continues for another two or three years.

InPresident Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono announced plans for internationally financed oil palm developments that would cover 1. The "Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Megaproject," which would have cut through several national parks on the Indonesia portion of the island, was scaled back in As a sign that Indonesia expects high rates of demand to continue, the government recently resurrected the project, according to WWF-Indonesia Executive Director Mubariq Ahmad.

Palm-oil biodiesel was once supported as a solution to climate change - a low-carbon alternative to burning fossil fuel-based gasoline in vehicles. In recent years, however, research has revealed that oil palm development, which often involves the clearing of intact forestland, can contribute far more greenhouse gases to the atmosphere than it helps to avoid.

The reason is found within the region's expansive peatlands, large deposits of carbon-rich forest debris that is too wet to decompose. When each hectare of peatland is drained for oil palm production, an estimated 3, tons of carbon dioxide is released over 25 years. By comparison, the carbon dioxide released from clearing a hectare of tropical forest, without peat bogs, ranges between and tons.

Killeen suggested that such moves may be intended to win votes ahead of this July's presidential election. In February, for instance, the government lifted a year-long moratorium on clearing peatland for oil palm plantations. Environmentalists opposed the decision, although the policy does place stringent restrictions on which bogs can be converted to agriculture.

Only 2 million of the country's 25 million hectares of peatland are now eligible, officials said. Due largely to greater international awareness, global business leaders have joined environmentalists to demand more-sustainable oil palm production.

Within Indonesia, industry leaders have publicly stated plans to develop oil palm on "idle lands" rather than dense rainforest. But WWF's Ahmad said it is too soon to be optimistic. Ben Block is a staff writer with the Worldwatch Institute.

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Global and china forest industry 2014

The English word "China" is first attested in Richard Eden's translation of the journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. The demonym, that is, the name for the people, and adjectival form "Chinese" developed later on the model of Portuguese chinês and French chinois.

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Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn (), which may be traced further back to Sanskrit. This paper explores the impact of climate change upon the global production of winegrapes and wine.

It includes a review of the literature on the cause and effects of climate change, as well as illustrations of the specific challenges global warming may bring to the production of winegrapes and wine.

Electricity and Heat Production (25% of global greenhouse gas emissions): The burning of coal, natural gas, and oil for electricity and heat is the largest single source of global greenhouse gas emissions.; Industry (21% of global greenhouse gas emissions): Greenhouse gas emissions from industry primarily involve fossil fuels burned on site at facilities for energy.

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